Abstract Confocal microscopy has made a dramatic impact on biomedical imaging, in particular, but also in other areas such as industrial inspection. Confocal microscopy can image in 3D, with good resolution, into living biological cells and tissue. I have had the good fortune to be involved with the development of confocal microscopy over the last 40 years. Other techniques have been introduced that overcome some of its limitations, but still it is the preferred choice in many cases. And new developments in confocal microscopy, such as focal modulation microscopy, and image-scanning microscopy, can improve its performance in terms of penetration depth, resolution and signal level.
Prof Colin Sheppar is Senior Scientist at the Italian Institute of Technology, Genoa, Italy. Previously, he was Professor in the Department of Bioengineering and Faculty of Engineering for National University of Singapore (2003-2012). He has held joint appointments with the NUS Departments of Biological Sciences (Faculty of Science) and Diagnostic Radiology (School of Medicine). He was SMART (Singapore/MIT Alliance for Research & Technology) Faculty Fellow, and Adjunct Research Staff at SERI (Singapore Eye Research Institute). His areas of research are in optics, microscopy and imaging, including confocal and multiphoton microscopy, diffraction, 3D imaging and reconstruction, superresolution, beam propagation, and pulse propagation.